Return to Common Sense
October 20, 2016
Section: Foreign – Policy
“Republicans seek to craft and nourish allies with common interests in foreign relationships, while Democrats seek alliances sacrificing American interests in the process.”
“The purpose of foreign policy is not to provide an outlet for our own sentiments of hope or indignation; it is to shape real events in a real world.” John F. Kennedy
Philosophy (Background, Issues, Objectives):
Department of State is tasked to create a more secure, democratic, and prosperous world:
- Combine diplomatic skills and development assistance in the global economy.
o Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) take an oath to serve their country anywhere in the world.
o Unfortunately about one-third of all US ambassadorships go to "noncareer" appointees (i.e. mega-rich campaign donors, fishing buddies, and retired politicians) instead of trained foreign-service officers, who normally are posted to popular spots like Europe, South America, and the Caribbean
- Protect our nation, our allies, and our friends against the transnational dangers.
o U.S. arms transfers to third parties are regulated by the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), which provides export licenses only in cases that "will strengthen U.S. national security, promote foreign policy goals, or foster world peace.
- Strive to build and maintain strong bilateral and multilateral relationships.
o U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) receives guidance from Department of State.
America is the lone remaining superpower.
- Superpower status includes political, economic, and military strength.
- The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 erased the only other superpower from the world stage.
o Communist States remain in power in China, North Korea, and Cuba.
- Non-communist economies began to fail under the weight of inefficiencies of socialism.
- There are two major foreign policy wings in the Republican Party:
- Isolationism is the notion that the US is better off withdrawing to fortress America and leaving the rest of the world's nations to fight it out among themselves.
o The isolationist impulse in the US is what caused the US to enter both world wars years after they began.
o It is what has propelled much of the anti-war sentiment on the far Left and the far Right alike since Sept.11.
§ The far Left argues the US should withdraw from world leadership because the US is evil.
§ The far Right argues that the US should withdraw from world leadership because the world is evil.
- Neoconservatism involves the adoption of a muscular US foreign policy in order to advance the cause of democracy and freedom worldwide.
o The Wilsonian view embraces the notion that if given a chance to make their sentiments known, most people will choose liberal democracy over any other form of government.
o Bedrock of foreign policy is the belief that freedom is the desire of every human heart.
§ American democratization projects have had mixed success after World War II.
§ There is a direct relationship between economic freedom and freedom and democracy.
American national interests is the best rule of thumb for determining which world problems we get involved in.
- America is not the world’s policemen, a role reserved for the United Nations.
o We do not have the resources to stop evil everywhere on earth, fights that other regional nations should deal with.
- Humanitarian aid is not a national interest, but a compassionate reason for assistance.
Anti-Americanism is not only opposition to what the U.S. does, but extends to what the U.S. is.
- Anti-Americanism has many sources:
· Some countries have a legacy of hate, while others envy and others are irrational.
· U.S. stands for individualism, political freedom, economic freedom, & religious freedom.
· Hegemonism is a doctrine where every American action be examined for evil intent.
· Mainstream Media leftist bias is alive and well outside the United States.
o Newspapers: UK Telegraph and Guardian are notoriously biased.
o Television: BBC and Reuters are leftist oriented.
o BBC own controller of editorial policy found the real perception of ‘bias of omission.”
o Al Jazeera (1996) is a Qatar based media outlet for Arab propaganda stories.
o Western Europe leftist media hates America, while the people generally admire the U.S.
o The further south in Latin America, the greater anti-American bias is perpetuated.
o Foreign press displays a leftist bias, reinforcing Democrat ideas and politicians.
- Marxist revisionism and hatred for America is alive and well on the Internet.
- The role of world policeman has been abandoned by the U.N. since they are unable and unwilling.
- The perception of anti-Americanism is dis-proven by the continued flood of immigrants yearning to enter this country.
Modern Presidents have also increasingly empowered and expanded the size of the National Security Council (NSC).
- The original NSC, established in 1947, comprised only a handful of key advisers to the President. It grew slowly at first.
- The size of the NSC spiked in the late 1990s and stabilized at roughly 100 staff in the post-9/11 period.
- Currently, the NSC staff is estimated to be over 400 people, more than twice the number at the end of the Bush Administration.
- This growth has been a direct result of the President relying more on the NSC to devise and implement his foreign policy than on the Department of State.
Presidents have also felt the need at times to appoint personal confidants or representatives to address pressing issues.
- When the President relies too often or too heavily on individual “czars” or “envoys” to address discrete issues, he risks undermining clarity and consistency of policy, distorting the importance of issues in the overall spectrum of U.S. foreign policy interests, and confusing both U.S. and foreign officials about the chain of command through the multiple lines of communication to the President.
American statecraft has been morally and philosophically grounded in principles:
- Human liberty
- Sense of justice
A number of great ideas are the basis for the superiority of Western values:
· Disinterested search for truth.
· Separation of church and state.
· Rule of law and equality under the law.
· Freedom of thought and expression.
· Human rights.
· Liberal democracy.
Provide global leadership in domestic and foreign affairs.
- Isolationism is not a viable alternative, since it just isolates America from its global partners.
- Containment can be effective to delay more aggressive actions until America is ready.
- Champion the value of free market capitalism in a democratic society.
Protect America’s ability to act as necessary to protect its own interests.
- Government must speak with a single voice to other countries (not a competition for influence!)
- Use globalization as a tool to further America’s objectives, without surrendering to its dictates.
- Reward our allies for their friendship; punish our enemies with our wallets.
- There are essentially three approaches that the U.S. can take:
o Interventionalist – activist nation, spreader of political liberty.
o Observationalist – friend of liberty everywhere, but guarantor only of our own.
o Isolationist – focused only on our safety and security.
James A. Baker III has outlined ten maxims for pragmatic policymakers:
· United States must be comfortable with using its power.
· United States power is limited.
· Be prepared to act unilaterally when the situation requires it.
· Appreciate the importance of allies.
· Use all the means at our disposal to achieve our objectives.
· When a course of action is not producing results, be prepared to change direction if necessary.
· Recognize and accept the U.S. will sometimes have to deal with authoritarian regimes.
· Be prepared to talk with our enemies.
· Be mindful that values are important, but not he only thing that should guide our policy.
· Domestic support is vital to any successful foreign policy.
Conservative Internationalism in based on four key tenets:
- Spread freedom in a way that is disciplined by threats and costs.
- Back diplomacy by force.
- Back force by diplomacy.
- Maintain public support.
Short Term, Develop a coherent integrated foreign policy strategy that reflects American national interests.
- Reinforce the professionalism of the Foreign Service.
o Ensure all candidates for an ambassadorial appointment are qualified.
o Increase foreign service assignments from three to five years.
o Cooperate with other nations diplomatically, in our own interests.
- Include all agency opinions (State, Intelligence, Defense, UN, USAID).
o Establish doctrinal principles to explain public diplomacy mission.
§ Create planning, clearing, and assessing processes across agency boundaries.
- Define criteria for American policy interests.
- Define criteria for American humanitarian interventions, including “Responsibility to Protect.”
- Define criteria for American police action interventions.
- Define criteria for American military interventions.
o Ensure diplomatic and military efforts are coordinated and consistent.
o Terminate FSOs who put their personal or political needs in front of their country needs.
- Reduce the operational role of the NSC and place those responsibilities chiefly on Under and Assistant Secretaries of State.
o Return the Policy Planning Staff to its original purpose, or eliminate it.
o Curtail the use of special envoys and special representatives (“czars”).
- Revitalize U.S. international broadcasting leadership, starting with Voice of America.
o Target desired audiences with appropriate dialogue approaches and channels.
o Exploit the use of all international broadcasting vehicles like VOA to educate listeners on freedom and democracy.
Long Term, State Department assume ownership of the nation building and reconstruction mission.
Integrate Stability Operations Force post-conflict/post-disaster stabilization and nation building and reconstruction missions.
- Staff an experienced and capable contracting office at all deployed locations, reporting into the State Department.
- Staff Stability Operations Force positions with experienced civilian subject matter experts.
o Recruit Foreign Service experienced professionals for senior leadership positions.
o Recruit people with language and technical skills to stand by in reserve.
o Recruit expertise in engineering, medicine, and policing available for deployment.
o Augment non-security resources with experienced civilian contractors.
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