National Defense

Return to Common Sense

April 26, 2018

Section: Foreign – Defense

Transforming to meet future defense needs will require a clear vision of military use in the future, expected opposition, and sustained investment across multiple political administrations

To be prepared for war is one of the most effective means of preserving peace.” – George Washington.


Philosophy (Background, Issues, Objectives):

Department of Defense is tasked to protect and advance U.S. national interests by:

The Quadrennial Defense Review seeks to match US military means to strategic ends.

o   The National Security Strategy (which provides high level strategic guidance and objectives) based on a firm political consensus about U.S. national interests and rigorous analysis of short-, medium-, and long-term threats, would shape the roles and missions of the military services as expressed in the National Defense Strategy (the implementation of national strategic objectives by the military), which in turn would influence choices in the Program Objective Memorandum.

o   The military mission must meet a crucial set of criteria:

§  Vital to our national security?

§  Exhausted all available alternatives?

§  Reasonable chance of achieving stated objectives at an acceptable cost?

o   Defend the homeland.

o   Sustain four peacekeeping engagements.

o   Fight two large scale regional conflicts.

o   The military implications of the Bush Doctrine are the overriding framework driving the QDR.

o   The military force levels include active and Reserve components.

Cyberspace is an area of threats that only requires a connection to the internet.

o   Offensive attacks can cripple infrastructure and utilities.

§  Denial of service is an effective blocking strategy.

§  Corrupting enemy infrastructure impedes ability to react.

§  Corrupting enemy capabilities can negate potential threats.

o   Defensive strategy is to identify and negate impact as fast as possible.

§  Defensive strategy includes restricting access and rapid notification.

§  Defensive strategy also includes rapid identification of attack initiation.

o   Cyber adversaries can be nation states, ideologies, or even bored hackers.

§  On a single day in 2008, would-be intruders hit the Pentagon 6 million times in a 24-hour period.

§  Before September 11, 2001, the highest annual figure for cyberattacks against the Pentagon was 250,000.

§  There is still no way of telling whether these were attempted intrusions by teenagers testing their hacking skills or the electronic warfare departments of nations, constantly flexing their electronic muscles.

§  Russia and China are the two biggest nation-state threats.

§  Iran and North Korea are developing cyberwar capabilities to advance their agendas.

Missile defense is a technological and political challenge.

o   In 1972 only 9 countries had ballistic missiles.

o   In 2008 at least 27 countries have ballistic missile systems.

§  Some of these countries actively support terrorist groups (North Korea. Iran, Syria).

o   China is planning to integrate space warfare as another domain of war.

o   Short range missile defense systems have been initially successful.

o   Development is underway with some success for ballistic missile defense systems.

o   The command and control network must include expanding array of sensors and interceptors.

o   Australia, Great Britain, and Japan have agreed to cooperative programs in missile defense.

The National Guard is the oldest component of the Armed Forces of the United States.

·         The Guard (Air and Army) can serve in three different manners under present law.

o   State Active Duty - funded by the state, and under command of the state.

o   Federal Duty (Title 10) - funded by DoD, under DoD command.

o   Discretionary (Title 32) - This is funded by DoD, but still under the command of the state to which the troops belong, the most prevalent way to use the Guard when you have a problem such as a national emergency or disaster, allows the cash-strapped states to use their assets as they see fit, but to allow DoD to pay the salaries of the troops.

The “progressive” left has opposed every war that America has fought over the last 70 years.

Twenty-two states have volunteer state defense forces (SDF) militia units as low cost force multiplier and homeland security resource.

o   Natural disasters and their aftermaths.

o   Terrorist attacks against population, infrastructure, or facilities.

o   Other hazards to public health and safety, such as outbreaks of contagious diseases.



Modern Americans are liberators, not conquerors.

Military core capabilities should include:

Caspar Weinberger defined his Doctrine in 1984:   

What is a just war?

Reagan’s Rules for Military Action:

·         The United States should not commit its forces to military actions overseas unless the cause is vital to our national interest.

·         If the decision is made to commit our forces to combat abroad, it must be done with the clear intent and support to win, with clearly defined and realistic objectives.

·         Before we commit our troops to combat, there must be reasonable assurance that the cause we are fighting for and the actions we take will have the support of the American people and Congress.

·         Even after all these other tests are met, our troops should be committed to combat only as a last resort, when no other choice is available.

Criteria for military intervention:

National defense re-building principles:

·         Rebuild ground forces based on strategic requirements.

·         Preserve the all-volunteer force.

·         Expand the capabilities-based force to support wide range of missions.

·         Revitalize the strategic forces (missile defense, space-based programs, cyber warfare).

·         Develop next-generation platforms.

·         Exploit cutting-edge technologies for competitive advantage over future adversaries.

·         Maintain air supremacy.

·         Maintain the capacity to control sea-lanes and defeat anti-access strategies.

Damage Limitation Strategy tenets:

Principles for Stability Operations and State Building:

·         Principles of Process:

o   1) Develop Human Capital

§  Education

§  Assignment

§  Accreditation

o   2) Create Common Space

o   3) Fight the Fog of Peace

§  Convergence

§  Lack of interagency planning

§  Lack of information and sharing of information

·         Principles of Purpose:

o   4) Determine Clear, Concise National Objectives

o   5) Establish Interagency Coordination

o   6) Ensure Unity of Effort

·         Principles of Peace:

o   7) Understand the Country

o   8) Delegitimize Bad Ideas

o   9) Create Credible Alternative and the Will to Prevail

The Peace Through Strength Platform is a statement of principles, intended to educate the American public on explicit positions taken by candidates for elected office or current office-holders:

Nuclear weapons policy must enhance and enshrine the strategic stability that has preserved global peace and prevented the use of nuclear weapons for generations:

Chinese Three Warfare’s (psychological, media, legal) technique to achieve strategic objectives.



Short Term, Allocate 4% of GDP on an ongoing basis for the continued rebuilding and maintenance of national defense.

Conduct a Military Transformation Review to identify opportunities to reduce bureaucracy, improve efficiencies and collapsing functional capabilities to cut costs (such as):

Integrate Coast Guard mission and resources from Department of Homeland Security.

Require National Security Strategy to be reviewed and reissued periodically, at least once each administration.

o   Evaluate both short-term and long-term risks.

o   Establish that humanitarian interventions should be State, not Defense mission.

o   Establish that nation-building is State, not Defense mission.

o   Derive the QDR from the National Security Strategy.

o   Create a buffer between the demands of the budget calendar and the strategy policy review.

o   Promote maintaining a substantial technological superiority.

o   Expand the two-war construct to reflect current risk environment.

o   Improve Congressional buy-in by establishing a permanent national defense panel.

o   Clearly link Defense as last resort extension of foreign policy.

o   Set force level needs to meet short and long term threats.

§  Ensure military readiness supports threat needs.

Ø  Ensure social reengineering (DADT) that undermines military readiness.

§  Set equipment needs to address short and long term threats.

·         Clarify scope of national vs. market cyber-attacks and a range of military vs. criminal responses.

o   Integrate cyber-warfare into the scope and fabric of national defense.

o   Define a measured escalation of cyber-defense and cyber-counterattacks.

o   Optimize defense infrastructure investments.

§  Close underutilized bases.

§  Cut military construction and housing.

§  Reform maintenance and supply systems.

o   Continue investments in a viable tactical and strategic missile defense system.

§  Develop a layered missile defense program.

Ø  Retain the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) program.

Ø  Preserve the Airborne Laser (ABL) program.

Ø  Continue boost-phase missile defense programs.

Ø  Field a system to protect U.S. coastal areas from sea launched shorter range systems.

§  Develop both defensive and offensive cyber-war capabilities.

§  Develop and field test space-based elements.

o   Add Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) as viable threat scenario.

§  Ensure critical infrastructure (power, communications, IT) is protected from EMP threats.

§  Integrate EMP suppression into missile defense plans.

o   Ensure National Guard receives long term commitment of resources and funding:

§  Ensure the appropriate Active and Reserve mix to meet the needs of the future.

§  Ensure equipment needs include dual use equipment for domestic missions.

§  Reorganize the National Guard to aid its response to catastrophic events.

o   Ensure ongoing maintenance to maintain or extend the service lives of equipment.

o   Standardize infrastructure, logistics, and equipment to better enable unified commands.

o   Restock prepositioned supplies to enable rapid deployment around the world.

o   Reinvigorate multi-national exercises and foreign military engagements.

o   Maintain air superiority advantage.

o   Continue investments in robotic technologies to expand military reach with decreased human risk.

o   Modernize nuclear warheads to maintain a nuclear deterrent.

Reform the military compensation, retirement, and health care system to honor current obligations to service members and updated to meet the changing demands for sustaining the all-volunteer force in a more mobile labor market.

Establish a civilian agency (Stability Operations Force) to replace military when the situation on the ground transitions to post-conflict/post-disaster stabilization and nation building and reconstruction.

o   Recruit Foreign Service experienced professionals for senior leadership positions.

o   Establish a roster of people with language and technical skills to stand by in reserve.

o   Recruit expertise in engineering, medicine, and policing available for deployment.

o   Augment security forces with experienced combat veterans and intelligence personnel.

o   Augment non-security resources with experienced civilian contractors.

Enforce Solomon Amendment linking federal funding to defense recruiting on campuses.

Long Term, Transform the American military to operate successfully in the future.

Redefine the strategic defense posture to one of Damage Limitation Strategy.

o   Continue reduction of operationally deployed strategic nuclear warheads.

o   Continue improving security at nuclear sites around the world.

o   Continue support for the “Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction” and the “Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism.”

o   Increase Army and Marines to meet future ground forces needs.

o   Expand Special Operations Command (SOCOM) to meet expected expanded missions.

o   Rebuild Navy to a sustainable global power level of deployment (300 ships).

o   Recapitalize and modernize Air Force to maintain air superiority.

o   Establish a National Security Space Command for Space, including satellite, defense.

o   Build a Cyber-War Command with both defensive and offensive capabilities.

o   Rebuild intelligence capability to better serve defense needs.

Transfer the Stability Operations Force to the Department of State for to post-conflict/post-disaster stabilization and nation building and reconstruction.



America’s Wars and the Progressive Left” by David Horowitz dated November 12, 2002 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=4553 .

Using Our Military for Others’ Interests” by Doug Bandow dated January 27, 2005 published by The Cato Institute at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=4018 .

What Became of the CIA?” by Gabriel Schoefeld dated March 2005 published by Commentary Magazine at http://www.commentarymagazine.com/cm/main/viewArticle.html?article=com.commentarymagazine.content.Article::9866&search=1 .

Who Bears the Burden? Demographic Characteristics of U.S. Military Recruits Before and After 9/11” by Tim Kane dated November 7, 2005 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/cda05-08.cfm .

QDR’s Crucial Question” by Thomas Donnelly dated January 12, 2006 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all,pubID.23672/pub_detail.asp .

The Pentagon’s Inadequate Vision for Safeguarding U.S. Soil: What’s Needed from the Reserve Components” by James Jay Carafano delivered March 16, 2006 published by The Hertiage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl975.cfm .

Clausewitz and World War IV” by Robert H. Scales dated July 2006 published by Armed Forces Journal at http://www.armedforcesjournal.com/2006/07/1866019 .

Beyond the Rainbow Plans: Military Industrial and Mobilization Planning in an Uncertain Century” by James Jay Carafano dated August 10, 2006 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg1959.cfm .

“The American Way of War – Cultural Barriers to Successful Counterinsurgency” by Jeffrey Record dated September 1, 2006 published by CATO Institute at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6640 .

The Enduring Features of the Debate Over Missile Defense” by Baker Spring dated September 20, 2006 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg1972.cfm .

Who are the Recruits” by Tim Kane dated October 26, 2006 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/cda06-09.cfm .

Hollow Military 2.0” by Gary J. Schmitt dated November 6, 2006 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=25315 .

Equipping the Army National Guard for the 21st Century” by Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated November 13, 2006 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg1983.cfm .

How Congress Should Interpret the New Space Policy Directive to Provide for National Security” by Baker Spring dated January 19, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg1998.cfm .

The Pentagon’s Africa Command” by David Silverstein dated January 23, 2007 published by National Review Online at http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MmRhOGFjNTA2YWY4YjUwMTk0YjA1NzZiM2VlMjExMjQ= .

Strategic Defense Initiative” by Paul M. Weyrich dated January 24, 2007 published by American Daily at http://www.americandaily.com/article/17389 .

U.S. Navy: Maintaining Maritime Supremacy in the 21st Century” by Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated February 6, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2005.cfm .

The Still Enduring Features of the Debate Over Missile Defense” by Baker Spring dated February 6, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2004.cfm .

The crying need for a “bigger” U.S. Military” by Jim Talent dated February 20, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/022007b.cfm .

The Demos’ Dangerous Special Operations Plan” by Michael Fumento dated March 1, 2007 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/MichaelFumento/2007/03/01/the_demos%e2%80%99_dangerous_special_operations_plan .

Caring for Vets: A Healthy Plan” by Eli Lehrer dated March 8, 2007 published by Competitive Enterprise Institute at http://www.cei.org/gencon/019,05801.cfm .

After Walter Reed: How to Fix Military Medicine” by Daniel H. Johnson dated March 9, 2007 published by Human Events Online at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=19730 .

Speak softly, America, and start carrying a bigger stick” by Ed Feulner dated March 9, 2007 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/EdFeulner/2007/03/09/speak_softly,_america,_and_start_carrying_a_bigger_stick .

The Right-Sized Army” by Frederick W. Kagan dated March 15, 2007 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=27387 .

Remembering Cap Weinberger’s Combat Doctrine” by Cap Weinberger Jr. dated March 30, 2007 published by Human Events Online at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=20059&keywords=cap+weinberger .

Ten Myths About the Defense Budget” by Baker Spring dated March 30, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Budget/bg2022.cfm .

Winning the Long War” by James Jay Carafano dated April 2, 2007 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=27655 .

Four Percent for Freedom: Maintaining Robust National Security Spending” by James Jay Carafano, Baker Spring, and Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated April 10, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/em1023.cfm .

Picking a fight with pacifism” by Burt Prelutsky dated April 23, 2007 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/BurtPrelutsky/2007/04/23/picking_a_fight_with_pacifism .

How Many Ground Troops Does the United States Need?” by Austin Bay dated May 9, 2007 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/AustinBay/2007/05/09/how_many_ground_troops_does_the_united_states_need .

Four Percent for Freedom: Spend More on National Defense” by Baker Spring dated May 29, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/em1027.cfm .

The Army We Need – We can’t fight the Long war with the forces we have” by Tom Donnelly dated June 4, 2007 published by Weekly Standard at http://weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/013/696spjpr.asp .

On Forgetting the Obvious” by Robert D. Kaplan dated June 15, 2007 published by The American Interest at http://www.the-american-interest.com/ai2/article.cfm?Id=289&MId=14 .

“The CIA Follies (Cont’d)” by Gabriel Schoefeld dated July/August 2007 published by Commentary Magazine at http://www.commentarymagazine.com/cm/main/viewArticle.html?id=10897 .

Governor Romney’s Global Initiative for Values and Freedom: A Strategy to Defeat Radical Jihad” by Cofer Black dated June 22, 2007 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/CoferBlack/2007/06/22/governor_romneys_global_initiative_for_values_and_freedom_a_strategy_to_defeat_radical_jihad

A Missile Mistake” dated July 6, 2007 published by Investors Business Daily at http://www.ibdeditorials.com/IBDArticles.aspx?id=268613884301493 .

Senate Sleepovers Force Paradigm Shift for Military” by Michael McBride dated July 21, 2007 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/MichaelMcBride/2007/07/21/senate_sleepovers_force_paradigm_shift_for_military .

The Long Haul: Fighting and Funding America’s Next Wars” by Aaron Friedberg dated July 25, 2007 published by Real Clear Politics at http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2007/07/the_long_haul_fighting_and_fun.html .

Knowing When to Salute” by Leonard Wong and Douglas Lovelace, dated July 2007, published by Army War College Strategic Studies Institute at http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB798.pdf .

Why Study War?” by Victor Davis Hanson dated Summer 2007 published by City Journal at http://www.city-journal.org/html/17_3_military_history.html .

Rereading Vietnam” by Robert D. Kaplan dated august 24, 2007 published by Atlantic Magazine at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200708u/kaplan-vietnam .

China Builds World’s Largest Navy” by Cliff Kincaid dated September 19, 2007 published by Accuracy in Media at http://www.aim.org/aim_column/5758_0_3_0_C/ .

Clarifying the Future of AFRICOM” by Brett D. Schaefer and Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated September 27, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Africa/wm1644.cfm .

The Real Lesson of Vietnam” by William Tucker dated October 4, 2007 published by The American Spectator at http://www.spectator.org/dsp_article.asp?art_id=12115 .

In Defense of Blackwater and the Modern Day ‘Merc” by David Huntwork dated October 4, 2007 published by American Daily at http://www.americandaily.com/article/20499 .

Solomon Amendment Defied” by Flagg K. Youngblood dated October 16, 2007 published by Human Events Online at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=22834 .

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and Space Warfare” by Larry M. Wortzel dated October 17, 2007 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.26977,filter.all/pub_detail.asp .

Resign, Retire, Renounce” by Fred Kaplan dated October 17, 2007 published by Slate Magazine at http://www.slate.com/id/2176122 .

A Maginot Line in the Sky” by Ralph Peters dated October 26, 2007 published by New York Post at http://www.nypost.com/seven/10262007/postopinion/opedcolumnists/a_maginot_line_in_the_sky.htm .

 A Dangerous Opportunity” by Frederick W. Kagan dated October 30, 2007 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.27040,filter.foreign/pub_detail.asp .

The Civilian Side of the War on Terror” by Dana R. Dillon dated October 31, 2007 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=6A96B7AF-5377-479B-B3CF-6595F19091B3 .

12 Myths of 21st-Century War” by Ralph Peters dated November 2007 published by The American Legion Magazine at http://www.legion.org/?section=publications&subsection=pubs_mag_index&content=pub_mag_warmyths_1107 .

Military Deaths Lower Now Than in 1980s” by Fred Lucas dated November 12, 2007 published by Cybercast News Service at http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewNation.asp?Page=/Nation/archive/200711/NAT20071112a.html .

The Guard’s Turn to Surge” by Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. dated December 14, 2007 published by National Journal at http://nationaljournal.com/about/njweekly/stories/2007/1214nj1.htm .

A Civilian Partner for Our Troops” by Richard G. Lugar and Condeleezza Rice dated December 17, 2007 published by Washington Post at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/16/AR2007121601560_pf.html .

The Pentagon’s Robots: Arming the Future” by James Jay Carafano dated December 19, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2093.cfm .

Providing for the Common Defense: What 10 Years of Progress Would Look Like” by James Jay Carafano, Baker Spring, and Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated February 19, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2108.cfm .

Cracks in America’s Air Defenses” by W. Thomas Smith, Jr. dated February 28, 2008 published by Human Events Online at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=25228 .

Plane-Wreck” by Frank J. Gaffney Jr. dated March 12, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=23820B76-384A-4BFB-B422-4B523AB13BD3 .

The Left’s Escalating War on Military Recruiters” by Michelle Malkin dated March 12, 2008 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/MichelleMalkin/2008/03/12/the_lefts_escalating_war_on_military_recruiters .
Principles for Stability Operations and State-Building” by James Jay Carafano dated February 13, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl1067.cfm .

Fire When Ready” dated March 20, 2008 published by Investor’s Business Daily at http://www.ibdeditorials.com/IBDArticles.aspx?id=290905631248476 .

“Providing for the Common Defense: Why 4 percent?” dated April 2, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/homelanddefense/wp040208.cfm .

Defense Issues for the Next Administration” by Thomas Donnelly and Tim Sullivan dated April 29, 2008 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all,pubID.27895/pub_detail.asp .

Advice for the Nuclear Abolitionists” by Gary J. Schmitt and Henry Sokolski dated May 5, 2008 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all,pubID.27934/pub_detail.asp .

The Silence of the Media Lambs” by Martin Sieff dated May 6, 2008 published by Human Events Online at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=26365 .

SOCOM Leads the Way?” by Stuart Koehl dated May 21, 2008 published by The Weekly Standard at http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/015/124hraee.asp .

On Promises Kept, Rank Our Government ‘Unsatisfactory’” by Thomas D. Segel dated June 28, 2008 published by American Daily at http://www.americandaily.com/article/22484 .

The Next High-Tech Threat to U.S. Security” by Paul M. Weyrich dated July 1, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=48973533-18B4-4903-BF1A-F083C43B1667 .

Congress Should Not Permit Negative GAO Report to Curtail Weapons Programs” by Baker Spring dated July 11, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.nationaljournal.com/njmagazine/cs_20080709_6213.php .

Nation Building 101” by Erin Wildermuth dated August 11, 2008 published by The American Spectator at http://www.spectator.org/dsp_article.asp?art_id=13673 .

The U.S. Strategic Posture Commission Should Recommend a Damage Limitation Strategy” by Baker Spring dated August 13, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2172.cfm .

Who Serves in the U.S. Military? Demographic Characteristics of Enlisted Troops and Officers” by Shanea J. Watkins and James Sherk dated August 21, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/cda08-05.cfm .

The Petraeus Doctrine” by Andrew J. Bacevich dated October 2008 published by The Atlantic Magazine at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200810/petraeus-doctrine .

Approaching the ‘Invisible Red Line’: Why Congress Must Act Now to Restore Military Readiness” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated October 31, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Features/NationalSecurity/bg2205.cfm .

Defense Spending ‘Fraud’” by James Jay Carafano and Eric Sayers dated November 21, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=86377B0B-AB68-43A0-9DCC-E5915DE15132 .

Why the World Still Needs America’s Military Might” by Peter Brookes dated November 24, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl1102.cfm .

Moving Forward with Ballistic Missile Defense” by Baker Spring, Peter Brookes, and James Jay Carafano dated December 2, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/BallisticMissileDefense/sr26.cfm .

Preparing the Pentagon for a New Age” by Robert Gates dated December 9, 2008 published by Real Clear Politics at http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2008/12/how_to_reprogram_the_pentagon.html .

Disarming Ourselves” dated December 14, 2008 published by The Wall Street Journal at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122930027871805333.html .

Building Cyber Security Leadership for the 21st Century” by James Jay Carafano and Eric Sayers dated December 16, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2218.cfm .

Contracting in Combat: Advice for the Commission on Wartime Contracting” by James Jay Carafano dated January 13, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2228.cfm .

Quadrennial Defense Review: Building Blocks for Defense” by Baker Spring and Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated January 28, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2234.cfm .

Cyberwarfare Hacks Silent but Deep” by Arnaud De Borchgrave dated February 17, 2009 published by News Max at http://www.newsmax.com/borchgrave/Cyber_hackers/2009/02/17/182570.html .

Arms Control Dinosaurs Are Back” by Marc A. Thiessen dated May 19, 2009 published by The Wall Street Journal at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124268963178032407.html .

They died for you” by Rick Atkinson dated May 24, 2009 published by Pittsburgh Post-Gazette at http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/09144/972099-109.stm .

The First War in Cyberspace” by Ed Timberlake dated May 26, 2009 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2009/05/the_first_war_in_cyberspace.html .

Sustaining American Leadership with Military Power” by Kim R. Holmes dated June 1, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/sr0052.cfm .

Moving Forward on Missile Defense” by Baker Spring dated June 22, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/BallisticMissileDefense/sr0058.cfm .

The Growing Air Power Gap: Implications for U.S. National Security” by Mackenzie M. Eaglen and Lajos F. Szaszdi dated July 7, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2295.cfm .

Does the United States Need a New Police Force for Stability Operations?” by Terrence K. Kelly, Seth G. Jones, James E. Barnett, Keith Crane, Robert C. Davis, and Carl Jensen dated 2009 published by RAND Research at http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9432/ .

The Peace Through Strength Platform” dated 2009 published by Peace Through Strength at http://peacethroughstrength.com/

Planning for the Future: How and Why to Salvage the Pentagon’s Quadrennial Defense Review” by James Talent and Mackenzie Eaglen dated January 4, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2351.cfm .

Fears awakened: Army study suggests new ‘police force’” dated January 21, 2010 published by World Net daily at http://www.wnd.com/index.php?fa=PAGE.view&pageId=122533 .

The State of the U.S. Military” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated January 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/wp012710.cfm .

Losing the Stomach for humanitarian Interventions” by Michael Barone dated April 8, 2010 published by Town Hall at http://townhall.com/columnists/MichaelBarone/2010/04/08/losing_the_stomach_for_humanitarian_interventions .

U.S. Defense Spending: The Mismatch Between Plans and Resources” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated June 7, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/06/US-Defense-Spending-The-Mismatch-Between-Plans-and-Resources .

The Building Blocks of a Strong National Defense” dated August 17, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/08/The-Building-Blocks-of-a-Strong-National-Defense .

The Threat of Nuclear Weapons” dated August 21, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/08/The-Threat-of-Nuclear-Weapons .

Defending Defense” dated October 14, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/10/defending-defense-setting-the-record-straight-on-us-military-spending-requirements .

A Plan to Cut Military Spending” by Benjamin H. Friedman and Christopher Preble dated November 2010 published by CATO Institute at http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/defense/cut_military_spending .

“Sen. Paul Proposes Serious Cuts” by Chris Edwards dated January 31, 2011 published by Cato Institute at http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/sen-rand-paul-proposes-serious-cuts .

How the U.S. Can Cut, Not Gut, Defense” by Robert Maginnis dated April 27, 2011 published by Human Events at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=43149 .

Sixteen Steps to Comprehensive Missile Defense: What the FY 2012 Budget Should Fund” by Baker Spring dated May 3, 2011 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2011/05/Sixteen-Steps-to-Comprehensive-Missile-Defense-What-the-FY-2012-Budget-Should-Fund .

Reverse the Destructive Embrace of Homosexuality in the Military” by Robert Maginnis dated July 27, 2011 published by Human Events at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=45127 .

America Needs a New Foreign Policy” by Zbigniew Mazurak dated November 5, 2011 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2011/11/america_needs_a_new_foreign_policy.html .

Saving the American Dream: Improving Health Care and retirement for Military Service Members and Their Families” by Baker Spring dated November 17, 2011 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2011/11/Saving-the-American-Dream-Improving-Health-Care-and-Retirement-for-Military-Service-Members .

What Is a Just War?” by Andrew Napolitano dated February 2, 2012 published by Town Hall at http://townhall.com/columnists/judgeandrewnapolitano/2012/02/02/what_is_a_just_war .

Why Most States Should Establish State Defense Forces” by Jessica Zuckerman, Martin Hershkowitz, Frederic N. Smalkin, and James Jay Carafano dated February 28, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/02/why-more-states-should-establish-state-defense-forces .

Nuclear weapon reductions must be part of strategic analysis” by Henry A. Kissinger and Brent Scowcraft dated April 22, 2012 published by The Washington Post at http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/nuclear-weapon-reductions-must-be-part-of-strategic-analysis/2012/04/22/gIQAKG4iaT_story.html .

Preventing Catastrophe: Time for a National EMP Awareness Day” by Michaela Bendikova and Jessica Zuckerman dated August 13, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/08/preventing-catastrophe-time-for-a-national-emp-awareness-day .

National Guard at Risk” by Steven Bucci dated August 27, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2012/08/national-guard-at-risk .

Seven Steps to U.S. Security, Prosperity, and Freedom in Cyberspace” by Steven P. Bucci, Paul Rosenzweig, and David Inserra dated March 28, 2013 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/04/a-congressional-guide-seven-steps-to-us-security-prosperity-and-freedom-in-cyberspace .

Rebuttal of the 6 most popular myths about nuclear weapons” by Zbigniew Mazurak dated May 2, 2013 published by Conservative Daily News at http://www.conservativedailynews.com/2013/05/rebuttal-of-the-6-most-popular-myths-about-nuclear-weapons/ .

Reagan’s Rules for Military Action” by Jeffrey Lord dated September 3, 2013 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://spectator.org/archives/2013/09/03/reagans-rules-for-military-act .

Against Humanitarian Intervention” by James Piereson dated September 18, 2013 published by American Spectator at http://spectator.org/archives/2013/09/18/against-humanitarian-intervent .

China’s ‘Three Warfares” by Robert Kozloski dated March 31, 2014 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2014/03/confucius_vs_brock_lesnar.html .

Obama Doubling Down on Nation-Building” by Chriss Street dated May 6, 2014 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2014/05/obama_doubled_down_on_nationbuilding.html .

2015 Index of U.S. Military Strength” dated February 24, 2015 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://index.heritage.org/militarystrength/ .

The 2016 Index of U.S. Military Strength” dated October 28, 2015 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://index.heritage.org/military/2016/ .

The 2017 NDAA Should Begin Rebuilding America’s Military” by Justin T. Johnson dated March 24, 2016 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2016/03/the-2017-ndaa-should-begin-rebuilding-americas-military?ac=1 .

U.S. Wrestles With How to Fight Back Against Cyberattacks” by David E. Sanger dated July 31, 2016 published by The New York Times at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/31/us/politics/us-wrestles-with-how-to-fight-back-against-cyberattacks.html?ref=todayspaper .

Reforming Intelligence: A Proposal for Reorganizing the Intelligence Community and Improving Analysis” by Mary Habeck and Charles D. Stimson dated August 29, 2016 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2016/08/reforming-intelligence-a-proposal-for-reorganizing-the-intelligence-community-and-improving-analysis .

Cyber Adversaries: It’s Not Just Russia” by Joel Weickgenant dated April 26, 2018 published by Real Clear Politics at https://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2018/04/26/cyber_adversaries_its_not_just_russia_136913.html .